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Commercial Reverse osmosis Plant - 2000 LPH to 2 lakhs liters per hour

Commercial Reverse osmosis Plant - 2000 LPH to 2 lakhs liters per hour

We are Manufacturer & Suppliers of All type of Reverse Osmosis Plant in chennai , India More »

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Water Treatment Plant

Water Treatment Plant

We design, manufacturing Erection & commissioning of water treatment plants for varied industries on turnkey basis in Chennai Tamilnadu India.

 RRR ENVIRO SYSTEMS offers a wide variety of options for purification of water from different sources either from surface water sources or ground water sources.

Water Quality Parameters Source of contamination Treatment Methods
  1. Colour

Source of contamination :

Color in water is usually due to organic material, which is usually extracted from decaying vegetation. Color is common in surface water supplies, while it is virtually non-existent in spring water and deep wells. Color in water may also be the result of natural metallic ions (iron and manganese).

Treatment Methods:

Color is removed by chemical feed, RRR retention and filtration. RRR Activated carbon filtration will work most effectively to remove color in general.

2.      OdorSource of contamination

Odor problems of many different types can be encountered in drinking water. Troublesome compounds may result from biological growth or industrial activities. Tastes and odors can be caused by mineral contaminants in the water, such as the salty taste of water when chlorides are 500 mg or above, or the rotten egg odor caused by hydrogen sulfide. Odor in the drinking water is usually caused by blue-green algae. Moderate concentrations of algae in the water can cause it to have a grassy, rnusty or spicy odor.

Treatment of Odor

RRR Activated carbon has an excellent history of success in treating taste and odor problems. The life of the carbon depends on the presence of organics competing for sites and the concentration of the odor-causing compound.

  1. Taste

Source of Taste

Generally, individuals have a more acute sense of smell than taste. Taste problems in water come from total dissolved solids (TDS) and the presence of such metals as iron, copper, manganese, or zinc. Magnesium chloride and magnesium bicarbonate are significant in terms of taste. Fluoride may also cause a distinct taste. Taste and odor problems of many different types can be encountered in drinking water.

Treatment of Taste

Taste and odor can be removed by oxidation-reduction or by RRR activated carbon adsorption. Chlorine is the most common oxidant used in water treatment, but is only partially effective on taste and odor. Activated carbon has an excellent history of success in treating taste and odor problems. The life of the carbon depends on the presence of organics competing for sites and the concentration of the taste and odor-causing compound.

  1. Turbidity

Source of Turbidity

Turbidity is the term given to anything that is suspended in a water supply. It is found in most surface waters, but usually doesn’t exist in ground waters except in shallow wells and springs after heavy rains. Turbidity gives the water a cloudy appearance or shows up as dirty sediment. Un dissolved materials such as sand, clay, silt or suspended iron contribute to turbidity.

Treatment of Turbidity

Typically turbidity can be reduced to 75 microns with a cyclone separator, then reduced down to 20 micron with standard backwashable filter, Turbidity can be reduced to 10 micron with a multimedia filter. RRR Cartridge filters of various sizes are also available down into the submicron range. RRR Ultra filtration also reduces the turbidity levels of process water.

  1. Total Hardness, CaCO3

Source of Hardness

Hard water is found over 80% of the India. The hardness of a water supply is determined by the content of calcium and magnesium salts. Calcium and magnesium combine with bicarbonates, sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates to form these salts. The calcium and magnesium salts, which form hardness, are divided into two categories: 1) Temporary Hardness (containing carbonates), and 2) Permanent Hardness (containing non-carbonates). Below find listings of the various combinations of permanent and temporary hardness along with their chemical formula and some information on each.
Temporary Hardness Salts

  1. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) – Known as limestone, rare in water supplies. Causes alkalinity in water.
  2. Calcium Bicarbonate [Ca (HCO3) 2] – Forms when water containing CO2 comes in contact with limestone. Also causes alkalinity in water. When heated CO. is released and the calcium bicarbonate reverts to calcium carbonate thus forming scale.
  3. Magnesium Carbonate (MgCO3) – Known as magnesite with properties similar to calcium carbonate.
  4. Magnesium Bicarbonate [Mg (HCO3)2] – Similar to calcium bicarbonate in its properties.

Permanent Hardness Salts

  • Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) – Know as gypsum, used to make plaster of paris. Will precipitate and form scale in boilers when concentrated.
  • Calcium Chloride (CaCI2) – Reacts in boiler water to produce a low pH as follows: CaC1, + 2HOH ==> Ca(OH)2+2HC1
  • Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4) – Commonly known as epsom salts, may have laxative effect if great enough quantity is in the water.
  • Magnesium Chloride (MgCI2) – Similar in properties to calcium chloride.

Treatment of Temporary Hardness

Softeners can remove compensated hardness up to a practical limit of 300 Mg/l. If the hardness is above 600 mg/l or the sodium to hardness ratio is greater than 33%, then economy salt settings cannot be used. If the hardness is high, then the sodium will be high after softening, and may require that reverse osmosis be used for producing drinking water

  1. Iron (Fe)

Source of Iron

Iron occurs naturally in ground waters in three forms, Ferrous Iron (clear waste iron), Ferric Iron (red water iron), and Heme Iron.

Treatment of Iron

Ferrous iron (clear water iron) can be removed with a softener provided it is less than 0.5 ppm for each liter of hardness and the pH of the water is greater than 6.8. If the ferrous iron is more than 5.0 ppm, it must be converted to ferric iron by contact with a oxidizing agent such as chlorine, before it can be removed by mechanical filtration. Ferric iron (red water iron) can simply be removed by mechanical filtration. Heme iron can be removed by an organic scavenger anion resin, or by oxidation with chlorine followed by mechanical filtration. Oxidizing agents such as chlorine will also kill iron bacteria if it is present

  1. Chloride (Cl)

Source of Chloride

Chloride (Cl-1) is one of the major anions found in water and are generally combined with calcium, magnesium, or sodium. Since almost all chloride salts are highly soluble in water, the chloride content ranges from 10 to 100 mg/I. Sea water contains over 30,000 mg/i as NaC1. Chloride is associated with the corrosion of piping because of the compounds formed with it; for example, magnesium chloride can generate hydrochloric acid when heated. Corrosion rates and the iron dissolved into the water from piping increases as the sodium chloride content of the water is increased. The chloride ion is instrumental in breaking down passivating films that protect ferrous metals and alloys from corrosion, and is one of the main causes for the pitting corrosion of stainless steel. The SMCL (suggested maximum contaminant level) for chloride is 250 mg/l which is due strictly to the objectionable salty taste produced in drinking water.

Treatment of Chloride

Reverse Osmosis will remove 90 – 95% of the chlorides because of its salt rejection capabilities. Electrodialysis and distillation are two more processes that can be used to reduce the chloride content of water. Strong base anion exchanger which is the later portion of a two-column deionizer does an excellent job at removing chlorides for industrial applications.

  1. Fluoride (F)

Source of Fluoride

Fluoride (F+) is a common constituent of many minerals. Municipal water treatment plants commonly add fluoride to the water for prevention of tooth decay, and maintain a level of 1.5 – 2.5 mg/l. Concentrations above 5 mg/l are detrimental to tooth structure. High concentrations are contained in waste water from the manufacture of glass and steel, as well as from foundry operations. Organic fluorine is present in vegetables, fruits, and nuts. Inorganic fluorine, under the name of sodium fluoride, is a waste product of aluminum and is used in some rat poisons. The BIS established for drinking water by the IS 10500 is 1.0 mg/l.

Treatment of Fluoride

Fluoride can be reduced by anion exchange. Adsorption by calcium phosphate, magnesiumiydroxide or activated carbon will also reduce the fluoride content of drinking water. Reverse osmosis will remove 93 – 95% of the fluoride.

  1. pH

Source of pH

The term “pH” is used to indicate acidity or alkalinity of a given solution. It is not a measure of the quantity of acid or alkali, but rather a measure of the relationship of the acid to the alkali. The pH value of a solution describes its hydrogen-ion activity. The pH scale ranges between O and 14.
Typically all natural waters fall within the range of 6.0 to 8.0 pH. A value of 7.0 is considered to be a neutral pH. Values below 7.0 are acidic and values above 7.0 are alkaline. The pH value of water will decrease as the content of CO2 increases, and will increase as the content of bicarbonate alkalinity increases. The ratio of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate alkalinity (within the range of 3.6 to 8.4) is an indication of the pH value of the water. Water with a pH value of 3.5 or below, generally contains mineral acids such as sulfuric or hydrochloric acid.

Treatment of pH

The pH can be raised by feeding sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), sodium carbonate (soda ash), sodium bicarbonate, potassium hydroxide, etc. into the water stream. A neutralizing filter containing Calcite (calcium carbonate – CaCO3

  1. Total Dissolved Solids

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) consist mainly of carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides, sulfates, phosphates, nitrates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, and a few others. They do not include gases, colloids, or sediment. The TDS can be estimated by measuring the specific conductance of the water. Dissolved solids in natural waters range from less than 10 mg/l for rain to more than 100,000 mg/I for brines. Since TDS is the sum of all materials dissolved in the water, it has many different mineral sources. The chart below indicates the TDS from various sources.

Total Disolved Solid (mg/l)
Distilled Water (0)
Two-column Deionizer Water (8)
Rain and Snow (10)
Lake Michigan (170)
Average rivers in the U.S. (210)
Missouri River (360)
Pecos River (2,600)
Oceans (35,000)
Brine Well (125,000)
Dead Sea (250,000)

High levels of total dissolved solids can adversely industrial applications requiring the use of water such as cooling tower operations; boiler feed water, food and beverage industries, and electronics manufacturers. High levels of chloride and sulfate will accelerate corrosion of metals. The BIS has a suggested level of 500 mg/l listed in the IS 10500 Drinking Water Standards.

Treatment of Total Dissolved Solids

TDS reduction is accomplished by reducing the total amount in the water. This is done during the process of deionization or with reverse osmosis. Electrodiaiysis will also reduce the TDS.

11.  ChlorineSource of Chlorine

Chlorine is the most commonly used agent for the disinfection of water supplies. Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent capable of reacting with many impurities in water including ammonia, proteins, amino acids, iron, and manganese. The amount of chlorine required to react with these substances is called the chlorine demand. Liquid chlorine is sodium hypochlorite. Household liquid bleach is 5% sodium hypochlorite. Chlorine in the form of a solid is calcium hypochlorite. When chlorine is added to water, a variety of chloro-compounds are formed.

Treatment of Chlorine

Chlorinated water can be dosed with sulfite-bisulfite-sulfur dioxide or passed through a activated carbon filter. Activated carbon will remove 880,000 ppm of free chlorine per cubic foot of media

  1. Calcium (Ca)

Source of Calcium

Calcium is the major component of hardness in water and is usually in the range of 5 – 500 mg/l, as CaCO3. Calcium is derived from nearly all rock, but the greatest concentrations come from limestone and gypsum. Calcium ions are the principal cations in most natural waters. Calcium reduction is required in treating cooling tower makeup. Complete removal is required in metal finishing, textile operations, and boiler feed applications.

Treatment of Calcium

Calcium, as with all hardness, can be removed with a simple sodium form cation exchanger (softener). Reverse Osmosis will remove 95% – 98% of the calcium in the water. Electrodialysis and Ultrafiltration also will remove calcium. Calcium can also be removed with the hydrogen form cation exchanger portion of a deionizer system

  1. Magnesium (Mg)

Source of Magnesium

Magnesium (Mg+2) hardness is usually approximately 33% of the total hardness of a particular water supply. Magnesium is found in many minerals, including dolomite, magnesite, and many types of clay. It is in abundance in sea water where its’ concentration is five (5) times the amount of calcium. Magnesium carbonate is seldom a major component of in scale. However, it must be removed along with calcium where soft water is required for boiler make-up, or for process applications.

Treatment of Magnesium

Magnesium may be reduced to less than 1 mg/i with the use of a softener or purification exchanger in hydrogen form. Also see “Hardness”.

  1. Copper (Cu)

Source of Copper

Copper (Cu-3) in drinking water can be derived from rock weathering, however the principal sources are the corrosion of brass and copper piping and the addition of copper salts when treating water supplies for algae control. The body for proper nutrition requires copper. Insufficient amounts of copper lead to iron deficiency. However, high doses of copper can cause liver damage or anemia. The taste threshold for copper in drinking water is 0.05 mg/l. The BIS has proposed a maximum contaminant level (IS 10500) of 0.05 mg/l for copper.

Treatment of Copper

Copper can be reduced or removed with sodium form strong acid cation resin (softener) dependent on the concentration. If the cation resin is regenerated with acid performance will be enhanced. Reverse osmosis or electrodialysis will remove 97 – 98% of the copper in the water supply. Activated carbon filtration will also remove copper by adsorption

  1. Manganese (Mn)

Source of Manganese

Manganese (Mg+4, Mn+2) is present in many soils and sediments as well as in rocks whose structures have been changed by heat and pressure.

Treatment of Manganese

Removal of manganese can be done by ion exchange (sodium form cation – softener) or chemical oxidation – retention – filtration. Birm filter with air injection will reduce manganese if pH is 8.0 to 8.5. Chemical feed (chlorine, potassium permanganate, or hydrogen peroxide) followed by 20 minutes retention and then filtered with birm, greensand, carbon, or Filter Ag will also remove the manganese

Sulphate (SO4)Source of SulfateSulfate (SO4) occurs in almost all natural water.Treatment of Sulfate

Reverse osmosis will reduce the sulfate content by 97 – 98%. Sulfates can also be reduced with a strong base anion exchanger, which is normally the last half of a two-column deionizer.

  1. Nitrate (NO3)

Source of Nitrate

Nitrate (NO3) comes into water supplies through the nitrogen cycle rather than via dissolved minerals. It is one of the major ions in natural waters.

Treatment of Nitrate

Reverse osmosis will remove 92 – 95% of the nitrates and/or nitrites. Anion exchange resin will also remove both as will distillation

  1. Arsenic (As)

Source of Arsenic

Arsenic (As) is not easily dissolved in water, therefore, if it is found in a water supply, it usually comes from mining or metallurgical operations or from runoff from agricultural areas where materials containing arsenic were used as industrial poisons.

Treatment of Arsenic

If in an inorganic form, arsenic can be removed or reduced by conventional water treatment processes. Reverse Osmosis has a 90% removal rate, and Distillation will remove 98%.

  1. Pesticides

Source of Pesticides

Pesticides are common synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs). Pesticides reach surface and well water supplies from the runoff in agricultural areas where they are used.

Treatment of Pesticides

Activated carbon filtration is the most effective way to remove organics whether synthetic (like pesticides) or natural. Ultrafiltration will also remove organic compounds. Reverse osmosis will remove 97 – 99% of the pesticides.

19.  VirusesSource of Viruses

Viruses are infectious organisms that range in size from 10 to 25 nanometers [1 nanometer one billionth (10-9) of a meter].Viruses depend totally on living cells and lack an independent metabolism. There are over 100 types of enteric viruses. Enteric viruses are the viruses that infect humans.
Virus (Disease)
Enteroviruses (Polio, Aseptic meningitis, and Encephalitis)
Reoviruses (Upper respiratory and gastrointestinal illness)
Rotaviruses (Gastroenteritis)
Adenoviruses (Upper respiratory and gastrointestinal illness)
Hepatitis A (Infectious)
Norwalk-type (Gastroenteritis)

Treatment of Viruses

Chemical oxidation / disinfection is the preferred treatment. Ozone or iodine may also be utilized as oxidizing agents. Ultraviolet sterilization or distillation may also be used for the treatment of viruses.

  1. Bacteria

Source of Bacteria

Bacteria are tiny organisms occurring naturally in water. Not all types of bacteria are harmful. Many organisms found in water are of no health concern since they do not cause disease. Biological contamination may be separated into two groups: (1) pathogenic (disease causing) and (2) non-pathogenic (not disease causing). Pathogenic bacteria cause illnesses such as typhoid fever, dysentery, gastroenteritis, infectious hepatitis, and cholera. Treatment of Bacteria

Bacteria can be treated by microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, or chemical oxidation and disinfection. Ultraviolet sterilization will also kill bacteria; but turbidity, color, and organic impurities interfere with the transmission of ultraviolet energy and may decrease the disinfection efficiency below levels to insure destruction. Reverse Osmosis will remove over 99% of the bacteria in a drinking water system

12.  SilicaSource of Silica

Silica (SiO2) is an oxide of silicon, and is present in almost all minerals: It is found in surface and well water in the range of 1 – 100 mg/l.

Treatment of Silica

The anion exchange portion of the demineralization process can remove Silica. Reverse osmosis will reject 85 – 90% of the silica content in the water